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Abbreviations:
ABäG:
Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik
ANF:
Arkiv för nordisk filologi
JEGP: Journal of English & Germanic Philology
JIES: Journal of Indo-European Studies
Med. Scand.: Mediaeval Scandinavia
NOWELE:North-Western European Language Evolution
SS: Scandinavian Studies
VMS: Viking & Medieval Scandinavia

 

 

Galinn Grund Online

Runic Bibliography

BOOKS
 
  • Antonsen, Elmer H., A Concise Grammar of the Older Runic Inscriptions (1975).
  • Antonsen, Elmer H., Runes and Germanic Linguistics (2002).
  • Elliott, Ralph W. V., Runes: An Introduction (2d ed., 1989).
  • Das fuþark und seine einzelsprachlichen Weiterentwicklungen: Akten der Tagung in Eichstatt vom 20. bis 24. Juli 2003 (herausgegeben von Alfred Bammesberger & Gaby Waxenberger, 2006).
  • Flowers, Stephen E., Runes and Magic: Magical Formulaic Elements in the Older Runic Tradition (1986).
  • Herschend, Frands, The Recasting of a Symbolic Value: Three Case Studies on Rune-Stones (1993).
  • Jansson, Sven B. F., The Runes of Sweden (Peter G. Foote, trans., 1962).
  • Looijenga, Jantina Helena, Runes Around the North Sea and on the Continent AD 150-700: Texts and Contexts (1997).
  • MacLeod, Mindy, Bind-Runes: An Investigation of Ligatures in Runic Epigraphy (Runrön 15, 2002).

    This monograph, based on Dr. MacLeod's dissertation, reviews the occurrences of ligatured runes in inscriptions throughout the runic era.  Bind-runes are found to have served a number of practical functions, including conserving space and correcting errors in inscriptions, as well as facilitating runic encryption.  MacLeod finds no evidence that bind-runes had special magical or religious functionality.

  • MacLeod, Mindy & Bernard Mees, Runic Amulets and Magic Objects (2006).
  • Makaev, È.A., The Language of the Oldest Runic Inscriptions: A Linguistic and Historical-Philological Analysis (1996).
  • McKinnell, John & Rudolf Simek, with Klaus Düwel, Runes, Magic, and Religion: A Sourcebook (2004).
  • Moltke, Erik, Runes and Their Origin: Denmark and Elsewhere (Peter G. Foote, trans., 1981).
  • Morris, Richard, Runic and Mediterranean Epigraphy (1988).
  • Nielsen, Hans Frede, The Early Runic Language of Scandinavia: Studies in Germanic Dialect Geography (2000).
  • Odenstedt, Bengt, On the Origin and Early History of the Runic Script (1990).
  • Old English Runes and Their Continental Background (Alfred Bammesberger, ed., 1991).
  • Page, R. I., The Icelandic Rune-Poem (1999).
  • Page, R. I., Runes and Runic Inscriptions: Collected Essays on Anglo-Saxon and Viking Runes  (David Parsons, ed., 1995).
  • Parsons, David N., Recasting the Runes: The Reform of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc (Runrön 14: 1999).
  • Pollington, Stephen, Rudiments of Runelore (1995).

See Review

  • Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions (Claiborne W. Thompson, ed.  Michigan Germanic Studies, vol. 7 no. 1, 1981).
  • Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions (J. Knirk, ed., 1994).
  • Runeninschriften als Quellen interdisziplinärer Forschung: Proceedings of the Fourth  International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions in Göttingen, 4-9 August 1995 (Klaus Düwel, ed.,1998).
  • Runor och ABC: Elva föreläsningar frDn ett symposium i Stockholm varen 1995 (Staffan Nyström, red., 1997).

A collection of eleven essays by leading runologists and other scholars, dealing with the historical use of runes in Scandinavia and elsewhere.  English-language contributions include Michael Barnes on native and foreign influences in the futhark; John Hines on runes and literacy, Alan Johnston on conceptual parallels between the development of runic and Greek script; Raymond I. Page on the relationship between Anglo-Saxon runes and Latin script, and Henrik Williams on the origins of runic writing in Roman Germania.

  • Runor och Runinskrifter: Second International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions (1987).
  • Stoklund, Marie, et al., eds., Runes and Their Secrets: Studies in Runology (2006).
  • Spurkland, Terje, Norwegian Runes and Runic Inscriptions (1995).

See Review

  • Thompson, Claiborne W., Studies in Upplandic Runography (1975).
ARTICLES, ESSAYS, BOOK CHAPTERS, ETC.

Andersen, Harry (1984-85).  “Three Controversial Runes in the Older Futhark,” Pt. 1: 4 NOWELE 97-110; Pt. 2: 5 NOWELE 3-22.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1972). “The Runic Inscription from Opedal,” in Studies for Einar Haugen 46-52.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1975).  “The Inscription on the Whetstone from Strom,” 9 Visible Language 123-32.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1978).  “The Graphemic System of the Older Futhark,” in Linguistic Method: Essays in Honor of Herbert Penzl 287-97 (I. Rauch & G. Carr, eds.).

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1980).  “Linguistics and Politics in the 19th Century: The Case of the 15th Rune,” 6 Michigan Germanic Studies 1-16.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1981).  “On the Syntax of the Older Runic Inscriptions,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions, 50-60.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1983).  “On Reading Runic Inscriptions,” 2  NOWELE 23-40.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1987).  “The Oldest Runic Inscriptions in the Light of New Finds and Interpretations,” in Runor och Runinskrifter 17-28.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1988).  “On the Mythological Interpretation of the Oldest Runic Inscriptions,” in Languages and Cultures: Studies in Honor of Edgar C. Polomé 43-54.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1989). “The Runes: The Earliest Germanic Writing System,” in The Origins of Writing 137-58.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1993).  “The Wesser Runes: Magic or Message?,” 21/22 NOWELE 1-20.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1996).  “Runes and Romans on the Rhine,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Frisian Runes and Neighbouring Traditions, Leeuwarden, Netherlands, 26-29 January 1994, 45 ABäG 5-13.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1998).  “On Runological and Linguistic Evidence for Dating Runic Inscriptions,” in Runeninschriften als Quellen interdisziplinärer Forschung 150-59.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (1999).  “‘Rengdhi thaer Vingi’ (Am. 4.2) ‘Vingi Distorted Them”: ‘Omitted’ Runes - A Question of Typology?,” in Language Change and Typological Variation 131-38 (Edgar C. Polomé & Carol F. Justus, eds.), JIES Monograph no. 30-31.

Antonsen, Elmer H. (2003). “Where Have All the Women Gone?,” in Runica, Germanica, Mediaevalia 9-19 (Wilhelm Heizmann & Astrid van Nahl, eds.).

Bammesberger, Alfred (1991).  “Ingvaeonic Sound Changes and the Anglo-Frisian Runes,” in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background 389-408.

Bammesberger, Alfred (1994).  “Notes on Medial and Final Vowels in the Ruthwell Cross Runic Inscription,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 139-48.

Barnes, Michael P. (1977).  “On Elmer H. Antonsen’s A Concise Grammar of the Older Runic Inscriptions,” 19 Saga-Book 447-57.

Barnes, Michael P. (1987).  “The Origins of the Younger futhark: A Reappraisal,” in Runor och Runinskrifter 29-45.

Barnes, Michael P. (1991). “Norwegian, Norn, Icelandic, or West Norse?: The Language of the Maeshowe Inscriptions,” in Festskrift til Ottar Grønvik 70-87 (J. Askedal, et al., eds.).

Barnes, Michael P. (1992).  “Review Article: New Runic Studies,” 30 Scandinavica 223-32.

Barnes, Michael P. (1994).  “On Types of Argumentation in Runic Studies,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 11-29.

Barnes, Michael P. (1995). “Review Article: New Runological Research,” 24 Saga-Book 155-63.

Barnes, Michael P. (1997). “Native and Foreign in the Runes and Runic Writing of Scandinavia,” in Runor och ABC 9-21.

Barnes, Michael P. (1998).  “The Transitional Inscriptions,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 448-61.

Barnes, Michel P. (2001).  “The Hedeby Inscriptions, the Short-Twig Runes, and the Question of Early Scandinavian Dialect Markers,” in Von Thorsberg nach Schleswig: Sprache und Schriftlichkeit eines Grenzgebietes im Wandel eines Jahrtausends 101-109 (Klaus Düwel, Edith Marold, & Christiane Zimmermann, eds.).

Barnes, Michel P. (2002). “Runic Tradition in Orkney: From Orphir to the Belsair Guest House,” in International Scandinavian and Medieval Studies in Memory of Gerd Wolfgang Weber 43-54 (Michael Dallapiazza, et al., eds.).

Barnes, Michael P. (2003). “An Enigmatic Runic Inscription from Kilbar, Barra,” in Runica, Germanica, Mediaevalia 35-42.

Barnes, Michael (2004). “Spirant Denotation by Younger Fuþark b,” in Namenwelten: Orts- und Personennamen in historischer Sicht 605-614.

Barnes, Michael (2005). “Language,” in A Companion to Old Norse-Icelandic Literature and Culture 173-89.

Barnes, Michael P. (2006). “Standardised fuþarks: A Useful Tool or a Delusion?,” in Runes and Their Secrets: Studies in Runology 11-29 (Marie Stoklund, et al., eds.).

Beck, Heinrich (1981). “A Runological and Iconographical Interpretation of North Sea Germanic Rune-Solidi,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 69-87.

Beck, Heinrich (2003). “Zum Problem der 13. Rune,” in Runica, Germanica, Mediaevalia 77-83.

Bertelsen, Lise Gjedssø (2006). “On Öpir's Pictures,” in Runes and Their Secrets: Studies in Runology 31-64.

Birkhan, Helmut (2003). “Some Remarks on the Druids,” in Runica, Germanica, Mediaevalia 100-121.

Birkhan, Helmut (2006). “Keltisches in germanischen Runennamen?,” in Das fuþark und seine einzelsprachlichen Weiterentwicklungen 80-102 (Alfred Bammesberger & Gaby Waxenberger, eds.)

Bosman, A. V. A. J., & T. Looijenga (1996). “A Runic Inscription from Bergakker (Gelderland), the Netherlands,” 46 ABäG 9-16.

Bragg, Lois (1999). “Runes and Readers: In and Around ‘The Husband’s Message,’” 71 Studia Neophilologica 34-50.

Braunmüller, Kurt (2005). “Variation in Word Order in the Oldest Germanic Runic Inscriptions: A Case for Bilingualism?,” in Papers on Scandinavian and Germanic Language and Culture 15–30 (NOWELE 46/47).

Bremmer, Rolf H. Jr. (1991). “Hermes-Mercury and Woden-Odin as Inventors of Alphabets: A Neglected Parallel,” in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background 409-19.

Buti, Gian Gabriella (1987). “The Eggja Inscription: A Functionalist Approach,” in Runor och Runinskrifter 47-53.

Christiensen, Aksel (1975). “The Jelling Monuments,” 8 Med. Scand. 7-20.

Dahm, Murray (2001).  “Re-examining Latin Cursive Elements in Fuþark Development,” 55 ABäG 15-20.

Derolez, René (1968). “A Runic Explicit Ascribed to Eskil, Archbishop of Lund,” 1 Med. Scand. 9-16.

Derolez, René (1981). “The Runic System and Its Cultural Context,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 19-26.

Derolez, René (1987).  “Some New Runes and the Problem of Runic Unity,” in Runor och Runinskrifter 55-66.

Derolez, René (1991). “Runica Manuscripta Revisited,” in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background 85-106.

Derolez, René (1998). “On the ‘Otherness’ of the Anglo-Saxon Runes and the ‘Perfect Fit’ of the Fuþark,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 103-16.

Düwel, Klaus (1981a). “The Meldorf Fibula and the Origin of Runic Writing,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 8-14.

Düwel, Klaus (1981b). “Runes, Weapons, and Jewelry: A Survey of Some of the Oldest Runic Inscriptions,” 22 Mankind Quarterly 69-91.

Düwel, Klaus (1987). “Some Remarks on a New Inscription from Schleswig,” in Runor och Runinskrifter 73-89.

Düwel, Klaus (1988). “On the Sigurd Representations in Great Britain and Scandinavia,” in Languages and Cultures: Studies in Honor of Edgar C. Polomé 133-56 (Mohammad Ali Jazayery & Werner Winter, eds.).

Düwel, Klaus (2004). “Runic,” in Early Germanic Literature and Culture 120-47.

Ebel, Else (1981). “The Beginnings of Runic Studies in Germany: A Survey,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 176-84.

Elliott, Ralph W. V. (1957). “Runes, Yews, and Magic,” 32 Speculum 250-61.

Elliott, Ralph W. V. (1983). “Runic Mythology: The Legacy of the Futhark,” 15 Bamberger Beiträge zur englischen Sprachwissenschaft 37-50.

Elliott, Ralph W. V. (1998). “Runes in English Literature: From Cynewulf to Tolkien,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 660-66.

Eythórsson, Thórhallur (1999). “The Runic Inscription on the Reistad Stone: The Earliest Landnámabók,” in Pforzen und Bergakker: Neue Untersuchungen zu Runeninschriften 189-202 (Gaby Waxenberger & Alfred Bammesberger, eds.).

Fell, Christine (1987). “Old English Semantic Studies and Their Bearing on Rune Names,” in Runor och Runinskrifter 99-109.

Fell, Christine (1991). “Runes and Semantics,” in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background 195-229.

Fell, Christine (1994). “Anglo-Saxon England: A Three-Script Community?,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 119-37.    
 
Fell, Christine E. (2002a). “Runes and Riddles in Anglo-Saxon England,” in Lastworda Betst 264-77.

Fell, Christine E. (2002b). “Wax Tablets of Stone,” in Lastworda Betst 249-63.

Fellows-Jensen, Gillian (2004). “The Weevil’s Claw,” in Namenwelten: Orts- und Personennamen in historischer Sicht 76-89 (Astrid van Nahl, Lennart Elmevik & Stefan Brink, eds.).

Fischer, Svante (2004). “Alemannia and the North – Early Runic Contexts Apart (400-800),” in Alemannien und der Norden 266-317 (Hans-Peter Naumann, ed.).

Fjellhammer Seim, Karin (1994). “Var futharken en magisk formel i middelalderen?  Testing av en hypotese mot innskriffter fra Bryggen i Bergen” [Eng. summ.], in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 279-300.

Fjellhammer Seim, Karin (1998). “Runes and Latin Script: Runic Syllables,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 508-12.

Fjellhammer Seim, Karin (2005). “Who is Confused—the Rune-Carver or the Runologist? Or: A Small Apology for George Stephens,” in Papers on Scandinavian and Germanic Language and Culture, 243–47 (NOWELE 46/47).

Flowers, Stephen F. (2006). “How to Do Things with Runes: a Semiotic Approach to Operative Communication,” in Runes and Their Secrets: Studies in Runology 65-81.

Forster, Leonard (1998). “Thoughts on the Mnemonic Function of Early Systems of Writing,” in Idee: Gestalt: Geschichte. Festschrift Klaus von See 59-62.

Fuglesang, Signe Horn (1998). “Swedish Runestones of the Eleventh Century: Ornament and Dating,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 197-218.

Gosling, Kevin (1991). “Recent Finds from London,” in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background 191-94.

Gräslund, Anne-Sofie (2000). “The Conversion of Scandinavia - A Sudden Event or a Gradual Process?,” in 17 Archaeological Review from Cambridge 2:83-98 (Early Medieval Religion, Aleks Pluskowski, ed.).

Gräslund, Anne-Sofie (2006). “Dating the Swedish Viking-age Rune Stones on Stylistic Grounds,” in Runes and Their Secrets: Studies in Runology 117-39.

Griffiths, Alan (2006). “Rune-Names: The Irish Connexion,” in Runes and Their Secrets: Studies in Runology 83-116.

Grønvik, Ottar (2006). “Runneinnskriften fra Ødemotland på Jæren,” 121 ANF 22-39.
[Norwegian w/Eng. summ.]

Gustavson, Helmer, & Steven Jörsäter (1981). “Runes and the Computer,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions, 98-105.

Haastrup, Niels (1968). “Runa aettir: generationes notularum,” 1 Med. Scand. 82-84.

Hagland, Jan Ragnar (1998). “Runes as Sources for the Middle Ages,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 619-28.

Hagland, Jan Ragnar (2005). “On Scalds and Runes,” in Papers on Scandinavian and Germanic Language and Culture 77-85 (NOWELE 46/47).

Hagland, Jan Ragnar (2006). “Runic Writing and Latin Literacy at the End of the Middle Ages: A Case Study,” in Runes and Their Secrets: Studies in Runology 141-57.

Halsall, Maureen (1989). “Runes and the Mortal Condition in Old English Poetry,” 88 JEGP 477-86.

Harris, Joseph (2002). “The Bällsta-Inscriptions and Old Norse Literary History,” in International Scandinavian and Medieval Studies in Memory of Gerd Wolfgang Weber 223-39 (Michael Dallapiazza, et al., eds.).

Harris, Joseph (2006a). “Myth and Meaning in the Rök Inscription,” VMS 2:45-109

Harris, Joseph (2006b). “The Rune-stone Ög 31 and an ‘Elegiac’ Trope in Sonatorrek,” Maal og Minne 2006, 3–14.

Haugen, Einar (1973). “The Dotted Runes: From Parsimony to Plenitude,” in Proceedings of the Seventh Viking Congress 83-92.

Haugen, Einar (1981). “The Youngest Runes: From Oppdal to Waukegan,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 148-74.

Hines, John (1991). “Some Observations on the Runic Inscriptions of Early Anglo-Saxon England,” in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background 61-83.

Hines, John (1997). “Functions of Literacy and the Use of Runes,” in Runor och ABC 79-92.

Hines, John (1998). “Grave Finds with Runic Inscriptions from Great Britain,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 186-96.

Hines, John (2001). “Angeln and the Angles,” in Von Thorsberg nach Schleswig: Sprache und Schriftlichkeit eines Grenzgebietes im Wandel eines Jahrtausends 37-51 (Klaus Düwel, Edith Marold, & Christiane Zimmermann, eds.).

Hines, John (2006). “The Early Runic Inscriptions from Kent and the Problem of Legibility,” in Das fuþark und seine einzelsprachlichen Weiterentwicklungen 188-208.

Holman, Katherine (1998). “Scandinavian Runic Inscriptions as a Source for the History of the British Isles: The St Paul’s Rune-Stone,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 629-38.

Insley, John (1991). “The Scandinavian Runic Inscriptions of the Older Fuþark and Old English Personal Names,” in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background 309-34.

Isakson, Bo (2003). “The Problematic ga:sric on the Franks Casket,” 43 NOWELE 65-70.

Isakson, Bo (2004). “Insular Manuscripts and the Sparlösa Stone – Similarities, Signs and Jokes,” 45 NOWELE 75-81.

Jansson, Sven B. (1981). “Hunting Rune-Stones in Sweden,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 199-213.

Jensen, Jørgen Steen (2006). “The Introduction and Use of Runic Letters on Danish Coins Around the Year 1065,” in Runes and Their Secrets: Studies in Runology 159-68.

Jesch, Judith (1991). “Who Was Hulmkir?,” 106 ANF 125-36.

Jesch, Judith (1994). “Runic Inscriptions and Social History: Some Problems of Method,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 149-62.

Jesch, Judith (1998). “Still Standing in Ågersta: Textuality and Literacy in Late Viking-age Rune Stone Inscriptions,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 462-75.

Johnsen, Ingred Sanness (1981). “Personal Names in Inscriptions from Towns of Medieval Norway,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 119-127.

Johnston, Alan (1997). “All Runes to Me,” in Runor och ABC 93-112.

Klause, Wolfgang,  & Klaus Düwel (1969). “Report On a Runic Bibliography,” 2 Med. Scand. 160-62.

Knirk, James E. (1987). “Recently Found Runestones from Toten and Ringerike,” in Proceedings of the Tenth Viking Congress 191-202.

Knirk, James E., et al. (1993). “Runes and Runic Inscriptions,” in Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia 545-55.

Knirk, James E. (1994). “Runes from Trondheim and a Stanza by Egill Skala-Grímsson,” in Studien zum Altgermanischen. Festschrift Heinrich Beck 411-20.

Knirk, James E. (1998). “Runic Inscriptions Containing Latin in Norway,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 476-507.

Knirk, James E. (2003). “The Runes on a Kufic Coin from Hoen in Buskerud, Norway,” in Runica, Germanica, Mediaevalia 348-55.

Kortlandt, Frederick (2003). “Early Runic Consonants and the Origin of the Younger Futhark,” 43 NOWELE 71-76.

Kratz, Henry (1978-79). “Was Vamoþ Still Alive? The Rök-stone as an Initiation Memorial,” 11 Med. Scand. 9-29.

Lager, Linn (2000). “Art as a Reflection of Religious Change: The Process of Christianisation as Shown in the Ornamentation on Runestoness,” in Early Medieval Religion 117-32 (Archaeological Rev. from Cambridge 17:2).

Lager, Linn (2003). “Runestones and the Conversion of Sweden,” in The Cross Goes North 497-508.

Larsson, Mats G. (1998). “Runic Inscriptions as a Source for the History of Settlement,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 639-46.

Larsson, Patrick (2005). “Runes,” in A Companion to Old Norse-Icelandic Literature and Culture 403-26.

Lehmann, Ruth P. M. (1987). “Ogam / Runes,” in Studies in Honour of René Derolez 293-98.

Lehmann, Ruth P. M. (1989). “Ogham: The Ancient Script of the Celts,” in The Origins of Writing 159-70 (Wayne M. Senner, ed.).

Liberman, Anatoly (2003). “Bird and Toad,” in Runica, Germanica, Mediaevalia 375-88.

Liestøl, Aslak (1968). “Correspondence in Runes,” 1 Med. Scand. 17-27.

Liestøl, Aslak (1970). “Runic Inscriptions,” in Varangian Problems: Scando-Slavica Supplementum I: The Eastern Connections of the Nordic Peoples in the Viking Period and Early Middle Ages 121-31.

Liestøl, Aslak (1977). “‘Will You Marry Me?’ Under a Church Floor,” 10 Med. Scand. 35.

Liestøl, Aslak (1978-81). “The Viking Runes: The Transition from the Older to the Younger Futhark,” 20 Saga-Book 247.

Liestøl, Aslak (1981). “The Emergence of the Viking Runes,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 107-116.

Liestøl, Aslak (1983). “An Iona Rune Stone and the World of Man and the Isles,” in The Viking Age in the Isle of Man 85-94.

Lönnroth, Lars (1977). “The Riddles of the Rök-Stone: A Structural Approach,” 92 ANF 1-57.

Looijenga, Tineke (1991). “Yew Wood and Runic Inscriptions in the Frisian Terp-Area,” in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background 335-42.

Looijenga, Tineke (1999a). “The Bergakker Find and Its Context,” in Pforzen und Bergakker: Neue Untersuchungen zu Runeninschriften 141-51 (Gaby Waxenberger & Alfred Bammesberger, eds.).

Looijenga, Tineke (1999b). “The Yew-Rune in the Pforzen Inscription,” in Pforzen und Bergakker: Neue Untersuchungen zu Runeninschriften 80-87 (Gaby Waxenberger & Alfred Bammesberger, eds.).

Looijenga, Tineke (2003). “A Very Important Person from Borgharen (Maastricht), Province of Limburg,” in Runica, Germanica, Mediaevalia 389-93.

Lühti, Katrin (2006). “South Germanic Runic Inscriptions as Testimonies of Early Literacy,” in Runes and Their Secrets: Studies in Runology 169-82.

Lund, Allan A. (2003). “Hertha – die Urmutter der Germancn. Bemerkungen zu einer vergessenen Interpretation der ,Germania‘ des Tacitus,” in Runica, Germanica, Mediaevalia 399-402.

MacLeod, Mindy (2001). “Bandrúnar in Icelandic Sagas,” 52 Scripta Islandica 35-51.
    – also in Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society 252-63 (2000).

MacLeod, Mindy (2002). “Bind-Runes in Numerological Rune-Magic,” 56 ABäG 27-40.

MacLeod, Mindy (2006). “Ligatures in Early Runic and Roman Inscriptions,” in Runes and Their Secrets: Studies in Runology 183-99.

Markey, Tom (1999). “Studies in Runic Origins 2: From Gods to Men,”11 Amer. Journal of Germanic Linguistics & Literature 131-203.

Marold, Edith (2003). “Die drei Götter auf dem Schädelfragment von Ribe,” in Runica, Germanica, Mediaevalia 403-17.

Massengale, James (1972). “A Test Study in Runic Dialectology,” in Studies for Einar Haugen 379-88.

Mees, Bernard (1999). “The Celts and the Origin of the Runic Script,” 71 Studia Neophilologica 143-55.

Mees, Bernard (2000). “The North Etruscan Thesis of the Origin of the Runes,” 115 ANF 33-82.

Mees, Bernard (2002). “The Bergakker Inscription and the Beginnings of Dutch,” 56 ABäG 23-26.

Mees, Bernard (2003). “Runic erilaR,” 42 NOWELE 41-68.

Mees, Bernard (2006). “Runes in the First Century,” in Runes and Their Secrets: Studies in Runology 201-31.

Meijer, Jan (1995). “Corrections in Viking Age Rune-Stone Inscriptions,” 110 ANF 77-83.

Meijer, Jan (2000). “The s-Rune in the Viking Age and After,” 115 ANF 23-31.

Meijer, Jan (2002). “Runic Terminology,” 56 ABäG 41-67.

Melnikova, Elena A. (1987). “New Finds of Scandinavian Runic Inscriptions from the USSR,” in Runor och Runinskrifter 163-73.

Melnikova, Elena A. (1998). “Runic Inscriptions as a Source for the Relation of Northern and Eastern Europe in the Middle Ages,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 647-59.

Melnikova, Elena (2003). “The Cultural Assimilation of the Varangians in Eastern Europe from the Point of View of Language and Literacy,” in Runica, Germanica, Mediaevalia 454-65.

Metcalf, David Michael (1998). “Runes and Literacy: Pondering the Evidence of Anglo-Saxon Coins of the Eighth and Ninth Centuries,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 434-38.

Moberg, Carl-Axel (1985). “Old Runes and New Archaeologists,” in Archaeology and Environment 4: In Honorem Evert Baudou 229-34.

Moltke, Erik (1981a). “How to Investigate and Reproduce a Runic Inscription,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 186-96.

Moltke, Erik (1981b). “The Origin of the Runes,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Runes and Runic Inscriptions 3-7.

Morris, Richard L. (1984). “The Lellinge Bracteate’s Salusalu: A Woman’s Name,” 99 ANF 6-13.

Neuner, Bernd (2006). “Das Norwegische Runengedicht — was sich hinter den zweiten Zeilen verbirgt” in Runes and Their Secrets: Studies in Runology 233-45.

Nielsen, Hans Frede (1991). “The Undley Bracteate, ‘Continental Anglian,’ and the Early Germanic of Schleswig-Holstein,” in Festskrift til Ottar Grønvik 33-52.

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Troeng, John (2003). “A Semitic Origin of Some Runes: An Influential Foreign Presence in Denmark c. AD 200,” 98 Fornvännen 289-305.
                         
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Waxenberger, Gaby (2006a). “The Representation of Vowels in Unstressed Syllables in the Old English Runic Corpus,” in Das fuþark und seine einzelsprachlichen Weiterentwicklungen 272-314.

Waxenberger, Gaby (2006b). ‘The Yew-Rune and the Runes [hægl], [gyfu], [ior] and [is] in the Old English Corpus (Epigraphical Material),” in Runes and Their Secrets: Studies in Runology 385-414.

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Wicker, Nancy L. (2006). “Bracteate Inscriptions through the Looking Glass: A Microscopic View of Manufacturing Techniques,” in Runes and Their Secrets: Studies in Runology 415-36.

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BOOK REVIEWS

Antonsen, Elmer H. (2001). “Book Review: Recasting the Runes: The Reform of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, by David N. Parsons,” 100 JEGP 301-02.

Haugen, Einar (1991a). Book Review: Asrunan: Use and Sound Value, 63 SS 516-18.

Haugen, Einar (1991b). Book Review: Concordance of Swedish Runestone Inscriptions,” 63 SS 516-18.

Nielsen, Hans Frede (2003). “Review Article: Elmer H. Antonsen, Runes and Germanic Linguistics,” 42 NOWELE 115-19.

O’Donoghue, Heather (1994). “Book Review: Old English Runes and Their Continental Background,” 45 Review of English Studies 544-45.

Willson, Kendra (2004). “Review Article: Mindy MacLeod, Bind-Runes: An Investigation of Ligatures in Runic Epigraphy,” 45 NOWELE 89–96.


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